Liberal Arts through the AGES: Interdisciplinary Art Historical Inquiry represents an important multidisciplinary collaboration at Augustana College. And with this 2014-15 edition, the project returns to its roots in the Origins of Modernity (2004-5) as a comprehensive interdisciplinary faculty/student collaborative project. It also builds on these roots by increasing its ease of accessibility, evolution and expansion through conversion to a digital format. Since the publication of Origins of Modernity, ten years ago, four different book editions of Liberal Arts through the AGES (2006, 2007, 2008-11, 2011-14) have been constructed, each built from the foundation of the modernity project in order to be relevant to the evolving goals for Augustana General Education Studies (AGES) in general and Liberal Studies in particular. All artwork represented here complements the general education curriculum and art historical goals of establishing contexts for the past through critical analysis and research of art, in order to deepen our understanding of both the past and present. These works have been carefully selected, researched and documented by current and former Augustana students as well as a vast number of administrators and members of the faculty across the curriculum.

This undertaking continues to be primarily supported through the Paul A. Anderson Chair in the Arts. The profound insight of alumnus Paul A. Anderson, whose successful life was cut tragically short in 1992, established this endowed chair so that the beauty and intellectual stimulation of the visual arts would have a strong and lasting presence at Augustana. Paul wanted students to see original works of art in person and become knowledgeable about the aesthetics, meaning and history of that art within a supportive academic environment. These resources serve to enhance the teaching mission of Augustana College in general and of the Department of Art History in particular. The majority of works included here were purchased, gifted or facilitated through me in my role as the Anderson Chair in order to develop a pedagogically-based art history collection that represents a broad historic and cultural range from ancient Greek black and red-figure pieces through contemporary art. By building an art history teaching collection, and supporting its related programming, Paul’s endowment has enriched multiple areas within Augustana College, resulting in an impressive collaboration of many committed people—professors, students, alumni (Classes of 1987-2018), administrators, staff, donors and art dealers—reflecting the ideals of a liberal arts education.

In my role as the Paul A. Anderson Chair, I have enjoyed overseeing the many aspects of this project, from building this art history teaching collection, in coordination with museum professionals as well as the Office of Advancement, to orchestrating and editing five AGES book publications, now celebrating ten years as a common text for Liberal Studies and a resource for General Education. Liberal Arts through the AGES is an unprecedented interdisciplinary art history education model that resonates on an international level. It has been well-received through my presentations at the Oxford Round Table, the College Art Association, the Association for General and Liberal Studies, the Association of American Colleges and Universities, the Midwest Art History Society, The Southeast College Art Conference, as well as at the Art Institute of Chicago and locally through exhibitions here and at the Figge Art Museum. I was especially delighted to chair an interdisciplinary Augustana faculty panel on this project for the Association for Core Texts and Courses conference at Yale University. The panel included Thomas Bengtson, Earl H. Beling Professor in Mathematics; Ellen Hay, Stuart and Virginia Harbour Chair and Professor of Communication Studies; Dell Jensen, Associate Professor of Chemistry; Taddy Kalas, Professor of French; and Emil Kramer, Professor of Classics. The conference was sponsored by Yale University and co-sponsored by Boston and Augustana Colleges. It has also been validating to share this exciting pedagogical project as an invited and keynote speaker for various interdisciplinary and art historical venues over the past decade.

My initial thesis for this undertaking, of providing students with fundamental primary documents—including artwork—enables them to engage in critical research and writing, guided by their professors, specialists in a number of disciplines. We have clearly broken new ground in the interdisciplinary use of the liberal arts museum as a classroom, and perhaps more importantly, with the classroom used as a relevant forum for original works of art. I would like to acknowledge my former BA and MA art history professor and advisor, the late Thomas B. Brumbaugh, Professor Emeritus of Art History, Vanderbilt University, whose many gifts and loans of works of art (well over 100 to Augustana) collected through his forty years of teaching have greatly impacted and enormously enhanced the intrinsic relevance of our art history teaching collection to all liberal arts disciplines. The Dr. Thomas B. Brumbaugh Art History Collection is indeed integral to this publication and our mission. Dr. Brumbaugh inspired my own goal to establish a rich art history teaching collection at Augustana. I also wish to acknowledge my former professor, Ljubica Popovich, Professor Emerita of Art History, Vanderbilt University, for her further scholarly influence and direct contribution to Augustana’s art history and museum programs through a public lecture and scholarly consultation on the Anderson purchase and booklet publication on our Russian icon. Finally, I want to note the profound influence of my doctoral advisor, Susan Hollis Clayson, Professor of Art History and History and Bergen Evans Professor in the Humanities, Northwestern University, for instilling in me a deep understanding of the importance of seeking rich and creative contexts via art history. She nurtured such methodology through my dissertation on the critical reception of American expatriate artist, James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903), and it remains central to my art historical viewpoint and scholarship. She has lectured twice at Augustana and shared her scholarship here. This foundation also provided the philosophical basis, combined with Professor Brumbaugh’s appreciation, deft connoisseurship and critical understanding of original art, for this interdisciplinary project that effectively engages faculty and students across the curriculum. In this manner, I aim to acknowledge my own teachers who have been instrumental in defining my own world view, as well as students and colleagues, both past and present, who continually enrich and expand that viewpoint through genuine and generous faculty/student collaboration.

In addition to art contributions from Paul A. Anderson and Professor Thomas B. Brumbaugh, many additional patrons have lent and gifted artwork or made possible specific art acquisitions included in this exhibition and volume. These include my parents, Dr. Thomas William and Barbara Lee Carter, Dr. Jeff Abernathy, Mr. Alex M. Adelman and Mr. Luis Robert Ubillus, Professor Irma Adelman, Josef and Anni Albers Foundation, Andy Warhol Foundation, Drs. Richard and Paula Arnell, Paul A. Arnell, Art History Alumni in Honor of Dr. Mary Em Kirn, Audubon Elementary School, Augustana College Art and Art History Department, Augustana College Art Association, Augustana College Art Collection, Augustana College Class of 1951, Augustana College Department of Art History, Augustana College Department of Geology, Augustana College Department of Physics and Astronomy, Augustana College Thomas Tredway Library Special Collections, Mr. James Beebe, Mr. and Mrs. Michael Barooshian, Mr. and Mrs. Victor H. and Isabel Bartolome, Mr. Barry Bauman, Mr. James A. Bergquist, Dr. James K. Billman, Mr. and Mrs. LeRoy and Margaret Carlson and Family, Dr. Kurt Christoffel, Dr. Daniel Culver, Mr. Dan Churchill, Adam J. DeSimone, Al and Lynne DeSimone, David A. DeSimone, Elizabeth and John Ducey, Emily Ducey, Robert Ducey, Mr. Daryl Empen and Dr. Cynthia Empen, Betty L. Beer Franklin and Dr. Woody Frankin, Drs. Gary James and Catherine Carter Goebel, Katherine Elizabeth Goebel, Thomas James Goebel, Mr. and Mrs. Edward Hoban, Dr. Reynold Emanuel and Johnnie Gause Leak Holmén Endowment Fund for the Visual Arts, Mrs. C. L. Horberg, Lynn Jackson, Kathy Bulucos Memorial Collection, Drs. Mary Em and Michael Kirn, Sonja Knudsen, Mr. James Konrad, Dr. Dan and Ruth Lee, Lohrey Family Limited Partnership, David and Cyndy Losasso, Mr. and Mrs. Frank Lufrano, Mr. and Mrs. Michael Moss, Mr. Carlton Neville and Stephanie Strass, George and Pat Olson, Olson-Brandelle North American Indian Collection, Dr. Richard E. Parker, Paul A. Anderson Estate, Paul and Marty Pearson, Dr. Paul Plante, Thomas E. Rassieur, Mr. George J. Schlenker, Dr. Erick O. Schonstedt, Mr. Harris Schrank, Mr. Allen Schuh, Dr. Alex and Mrs. Martha Stone, Adrian R. Tió, Mrs. Jean F. P. W. Walgren, Rebecca Wee, Dr. Eugene C. and Mrs. Barbara B. Wittenstrom and Mr. Clarence F. and Mrs. Barbara B. Wittenstrom, Jr., and Dr. Karin Youngberg. Additional funding support was provided through a summer 2011 Presidential Fellowship, by the Department of Art History, Augustana College Art Exhibits program, and friends of Augustana College. We are particularly fortunate to include a large number of important works graciously and anonymously lent from private collections. I would also like to acknowledge the considerable research and collection assistance of Alex M. Adelman, Robert Ubillus Adelman, Marylene Charmont, Bruce Duncan, Geoffrey Heeney, Hollie Powers Holt, Zeljko Lah, Bruce Loch, Ron Povlich, Harris Schrank, Luis Robert Ubillus and Matt Wrubican.

Our College administration has been tremendously supportive of this vast undertaking. I thank President Steven C. Bahls for his genuine enthusiasm and fine introductory essay as well as his contribution on Pieter Bruegel; Pareena G. Lawrence, Provost of the College and Professor of Economics, for her further introduction and contribution on the Mughal India pieces; Lynn Jackson, former Vice President for Advancement, for her guidance and gifted work by Mary Cassatt; and Paul Pearson, former Vice President of Business and Finance, for his gifts related to Andy Warhol as well as his support for our projects.

Many contributors to the catalogue must also be acknowledged. I especially thank my colleague, Mary Em Kirn, Professor Emerita of Art History, who has always been the ideal senior colleague and continues as such during retirement. Her significant contributions are too numerous to list. Thomas Banks, Professor Emeritus of Classics and Dorothy J. Parkander Professor Emeritus in Literature, has been fundamental to the project as were Thomas Bengtson; David Ellis, Associate Professor of History; Ellen Hay; Dell Jensen; Emil A. Kramer; Taddy Kalas; and Margaret Morse, Associate Professor of Art History.

Many members of the administration and faculty contributed essays on works of art related to their interests, including Umme Al-Wazedi, Associate Professor of English; David Arbesu, former Assistant Professor of Spanish; Steven Bahls; Thomas Banks; Thomas Bengtson; Erin Bertram, former Fellowship Instructor in English; Allen Bertsche, Director of International Programs & Off-Campus Programs and Professor of Spanish; Noelle Birondo, former Visiting Assistant Professor of Philosophy; Ann Boaden, Adjunct Associate Professor of English; Deborah Bracke, Associate Professor of Education; Lendol Calder, Professor of History; Lee Carkner, Associate Professor of Physics and Astronomy and Director of the John Deere Planetarium; Kurt Christoffel, Professor of Chemistry; Roger Crossley, Professor Emeritus of French; Daniel Culver, Henry Veld Professor of Music; Kelly Daniels, Associate Professor of English; Kirsten Day, Associate Professor of Classics; David Dehnel, Professor of Political Science; Kristin Douglas, Associate Professor of Biology and Associate Dean; Elizabeth P. Ducey, Art History Graphic Designer, Secretary and Director of Visual and Archival Resources; Leslie Dupree, Director of Web Services and New Media; Bohdan Dziadyck, Professor of Biology and Director of Field Stations; Robert Elfline, Associate Professor of Music; Don Erickson, Professor Emeritus of English and Dorothy J. Parkander Professor Emeritus in Literature; C. Kevin Geedey, Professor of Biology; Meg Gilette, Associate Professor of English; Naoko Gunji, former Assistant Professor of Art History; Virginia Johnson, Director of the Reading and Writing Center; Robert Haak, former Professor of Religion and Associate Dean and Director of the Center for Community Engagement; Stephen Hager, Associate Professor of Biology; Ellen Hay, Professor of Communication Studies; David Hill, Professor of Philosophy; Sarah M. Horowitz, former Special Collections Librarian; Jennifer Horrell, former Assistant Professor of Scandinavian Studies; Nancy Huse, Professor Emerita of English; Scott Irelan, former Assistant Professor of Theatre; Dell Jensen, Associate Professor of Chemistry; Ruth Ann Johnson, Professor of Psychology; Virginia Johnson, Director of the Reading and Writing Center; Taddy Kalas; Adam Kaul, Associate Professor of Anthropology; Mary Em Kirn, Professor Emerita of Art History; Peter Kivisto, Professor of Sociology and Richard A. Swanson Professor of Social Thought; Stephen A. Klien, Professor of Communication Studies and Director, Center for Faculty Enrichment; the late James Konrad, former Adjunct Assistant Professor of Art; James M. Lambrecht, Professor of Music and Director of Bands; Emil A. Kramer; Daniel Lee, Professor of Religion, Marian Taft Cannon Professor in the Humanities and Director of the Center for the Study of Ethics; Megan MacCall, former Art History Director of Digital and Visual Resources; Joseph D. McDowell, Professor of English; the late Barbara Melaas-Swanson, Instructor of Religion; Margaret Morse; Kristy Nabhan-Warren, former Associate Professor of American Religions; Mari Nagase, Associate Professor of Asian Studies; Jamie L. Nelson, former Special Collections Librarian; the late Michael Nolan, former Associate Dean and Adjunct Instructor of English; Dorothy Parkander, Professor Emerita of English and Conrad Bergendoff Professor Emerita in the Humanities; the late Melbert E. Peterson, Professor Emeritus of Chemistry and Director Emeritus of the John Deere Planetarium; Jennifer Popple, Assistant Professor in Theater, English and Liberal Studies; Richard Priggie, College Chaplain; Margaret Rogal, former Reference Librarian; Nirmala Salgado, Professor of Religion; the late Larry E. Scott, former Professor of Scandinavian Studies; Lisa Seidlitz, Associate Professor of German; Patricia Shea, former Assistant Professor of Education; Jane Simonsen, Associate Professor of History and Women’s and Gender Studies and WGS Coordinator; Marsha Y. Smith, Professor of Sociology; David Snowball, Professor of Communication Studies; Heidi Storl, Professor of Philosophy; Molly Todd, former Assistant Professor of History; Roald Tweet, Professor Emeritus of English and Conrad Bergendoff Professor Emeritus in the Humanities; Sharon Varallo, Professor of Communication Studies and Violet M. Jaeke Professor of Family Life; Dara Wegman-Geedey, Professor of Biology; Christopher Whitt, Associate Professor of Political Science; Michael B. Wolf, Professor of Geology; Leslie F. Wolf, former Fellowship Instructor in Philosophy; Karin Youngberg, Professor of English and Conrad Bergendoff Professor in the Humanities; and Cyrus Zargar, Associate Professor of Religion and Islamic Studies.

Many students and alumni from a variety of majors and minors ranging from first-year through seniors contributed essays on individual works for this textbook. Alumni contributors include: Jennifer Jaskowiak; Elizabeth D. Olton and Beth Repay Swanson, Class of 1987; James Beebe and Anthony Merino, Class of 1988; Paul Bacon and Deann Thoms, Class of 1990; Kathryn Hannen Walker, Class of 1993; Michelle Richmond, Class of 1995; Emily Vokt Ziemba, Class of 1998; and Amy DeLamoreaux, Erin Granet, Lauren Habenicht, Robert Lopez, Angela Granet Lynch, Class of 2001. Alumni from the class of 2005 include: Brian Allured, Matthew Brownley, Errin Copple, Megan Crandall, Dana Kau, Nikki Kromphardt, Beth Luebke; Joe Marusarz, Jason Myers, Megan O’Brien and Michael Skelton. Contributors from the class of 2006 include: Paul Arnell, Kate Felde, David Freeman, Regina Gorham, Colleen Jaycox; Jennifer Johnson, Carol Marquardsen, Kim Weidner and Ewa Wojewoda. Class of 2007 authors include: Mikeda Cannon, Beth Cloud, Mary Feeney, Katie Gedrimas, Chris Johnson, Sneha Konda, Laura Kurczodyna; Jennifer Lams, Gayln Landem, Courtney Olson, Dan Pearson, Kelly Volkert, Jessica Whetzal, Jennifer Windmiller and Dana Zingato. Contributors from the Class of 2008 include: Katie Arnold, Jennifer Bock, Kaitlin Bradley, Jessica Feinman, Beth Gilmartin, Thomas J. Goebel, Julius Gylys, Randi Higel, Lisa Johnson, Aron Lees, Cristy Martinez, Kristin McLinden, Anne Motto, Amanda Nordstrom, Katie Otter, John Regan, Andrea Ritchie, Erin Reeverts, J. D. Rotzoll, Joe Scurto, Johanna Voorhees and Jeffrey Weiland. Class of 2009 contributors include: Julianne Medel, Megan O’Connor, Michelle Petry and Joshua Schipp. Class of 2010 writers include: April Bernath, Margaret Maksimovich and Mark Leveling. Class of 2011 contributors include: Brooke Bryant; Emily Cox, Stephanie Loria, Victoria Richmond and Helen Reinold. Class of 2012 authors include: Melanie Battistoni, Matthew Bowman, Emma Burns, Rebecca Hodgson, Griselda Mata, Amanda Miller, Eric Safranski and Veronica Smith. Class of 2013 contributors x LIBERAL ARTS THROUGH THE AGES include: Alyssa Anderson, Kate McCormick and Emily Timmons. Class of 2014 writers include: Amanda Greenlee, Elizabeth Jakaitis, Jessica Lemek, Alexis Long and Chase Matzinger and Class of 2015: Sarah Berndt, Audrey Moore and Colleen Cooper.

Special thanks and gratitude are extended to our graphic designer and secretary, Elizabeth Parker Ducey. Beth has spent over ten years now, tirelessly working with me through summers as well as many evenings and weekends toward the Origins of Modernity and all four editions of Liberal Arts through the AGES. Her diligent and good-humored dedication to these projects is laudable and her fine eye for design is reflected in every beautiful presentation of these publications. Beyond the design work, she has served as project manager and was instrumental in coordinating the drafts and final manuscript, especially complicated through my teaching on fall 2011 London term and transition to this digital format in 2014-15. She was assisted by work-study students Logan Douglass, who standardized all citations and constructed a collated bibliography, and Veronica Smith, who oversaw permissions for reproducing works of art. Trevor Warner lent his impressive computer science major expertise to this digital publication, expanded from the original web gallery, to effectively design a format responsive to including all former book contributions and allowing for current and future expansion of contributors. I am grateful to Dona Dungan, Professor, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, for enabling this essential collaboration between Computer Science and Art Hisory. Megan MacCall, former Director of Digital and Visual Resources, has also been integral [and particularly] toward constructing the initial electronic web gallery for these works of art to facilitate their usage by faculty and students. I would also like to acknowledge the assistance of the Thomas Tredway Library staff, particularly Carla Tracy, Director, as well as Margi Rogal and Connie Ghinazzi, former and current Reference Librarians, and Jamie Nelson and Sarah Horowitz, former Special Collections Librarians. In addition, Information Technology Services Director Chris Vaughan as well as Fernando Rios furthered this undertaking.

In addition, I wish to acknowledge the late James Konrad, Adjunct Assistant Professor of Art, for his skillful conservation and consultation regarding many paintings here; Barry Bauman, Conservator of Paintings and Fine Works of Art for Non-Profit Organizations, also kindly conserved key pieces. Dick Oberg photographed all artwork for this publication and Fidlar Printing Company courteously provided professional resources toward the planning and production stages for all five books. Finally, I want to generally thank all, too numerous to mention, who have in any way contributed to the successful completion of this 2014-15 digital edition of Liberal Arts through the AGES: Interdisciplinary Art Historical Inquiry. The faculty, students and administration who have embraced this project and its potential for our students are truly remarkable. I am profoundly grateful, in particular, to members of the Augustana faculty who graciously lent their time and impressive expertise toward this significant collegial collaboration. Each has provided a distinct lens on the liberal arts that richly contributes toward the greater illumination of our students as they prepare to focus on the large picture of their education.

I am most indebted to my husband, Dr. Gary James Goebel, who has been continuously patient, supportive and encouraging toward my many diverse professional projects and especially for this particular one, originally planned as a one-year enrichment, which clearly at more than a decade now, became much larger and longer than anticipated. I am grateful to my mother, Barbara Lee Carter, who introduced me to the beauty and importance of visual and written language and my late father, Dr. Thomas William Carter, whose example of excellence and service remain a beacon in my life. My sister, Patricia Carter Deveau, who first suggested I take an art history class in college, a decision that led me to this career. I especially want to thank my children, Dr. Thomas James Goebel and Katherine Elizabeth Goebel, who reinforce their mother’s preoccupation with such professional projects for the college. Tom was an enormously valuable inspiration and resource, offering perspectives and insights, for the first three books in general and in particular as volunteer assistant editor for the further fourth and sesquicentennial edition. Katie proved integral and indeed essential to the final book and current digital edition as volunteer assistant editor, adeptly editing longer essays from past contributors to transition effectively to the new format for this digital publication. Both Tom and Katie also wrote their own multi-source research essays included in this edition. Their inspiration, guidance and generous contributions have thoroughly enhanced the quality of this project and its relevance for their contemporaries. Without my family’s enthusiasm, contributions and encouragement this project would never have been undertaken or completed.

Catherine Carter Goebel, Editor